In 1966, scientists announced to the world that they had finished deciphering the system of rules that together comprise the standard genetic code. At the time, they were surprised to have found the same exact system of genetic coding at work in organisms as diverse as human beings (Homo sapiens), the bacterium Escherichia coli and the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae- and this led them to mistakenly call it the Universal genetic code. We now know that numerous minor variations do exist in a handful of natural living systems (the non-standard genetic codes), however the standard genetic code is indeed at work in the majority of known life on our planet.
The fundamental characteristics of the standard genetic code are as follows:
The standard genetic code is illustrated below, using the standard 3-letter abbreviations for each amino acid